Applicability of Virtual DirectShow Sources

Virtual DirectShow  sources have been a long time synonym of software-only camera implementation exposed to applications along with physical cameras in a way that applications consume the sources without making a difference whether the camera is real or virtual. Vivek’s template was a starting point for many:

Capture Source Filter filter (version 0.1) 86 KB zipped, includes binaries.  A sample source filter that emulates a video capture device contributed by Vivek (rep movsd from the public newsgroups).  Thanks Vivek!  TMH has not tested this filter yet.  Ask questions about this on

With API changes over years, the sample and the concept is still understood as the method of adding a virtual camera, however new scenarios exist where the concept no longer works. Typical problems:

  1. 64-bit applications cannot consume virtual 32-bit virtual sources
  2. Virtual sources are no visible and accessible to applications consuming video using Media Foundation API

The diagram below explains the applicability of virtual cameras:

Applicability of Virtual DirectShow Sources

Important is that virtual sources can only be consumed by the DirectShow-based applications of the same bitness.

If source developer needs to synchronize virtual source throughout multiple applications (e.g. video is synthesized by another application and needs to be deliverable to multiple clients), he needs to add interprocess synchronization on the backyard of virtual source.

If developer needs to support both 32- and 64-bit apps, he needs both variants of virtual sources registered, and possibly synchronization of the kind of the paragraph above.

The only virtual device which is visible to all video capture applications if implemented by kernel level driver (implementations are rare but exist).

See also:

How to create Virtual Webcam in Windows 10?

(this is a re-post from StackOverflow)

Virtual webcam is typically a software only implementation that application discover as if it is a device with physical representation. The mentioned applications use APIs to work with web cameras and ability to extend the APIs and add your own video source is the way to create a virtual web camera.

In Windows there are a few APIs to consume video sources: Video for Windows, DirectShow, Media Foundation (in chronological order).

Video for Windows is not really extensible and limited in capabilities overall. It will see a virtual device if you provide a kernel mode driver for a virtual camera.

DirectShow is the API used by most video capture enabled Windows applications and it is present in all Windows versions including Windows 10 (except just Windows RT). Then it’s perfectly extensible and in most cases the term “virtual webcam” refers to DirectShow virtual webcam. Methods to create DirectShow virtual webcam discussed in many StackOverflow questions remain perfectly valid for Windows 10, for applications that implement video capture using DirectShow:

DirectShow samples were removed from Windows SDK but you can still find them in older releases:

If you provide a kernel mode driver for video camera device (your virtual webcam through custom kernel driver), DirectShow would also see it just like other video APIs.

Media Foundation is a supposed successor of DirectShow but its video capture capabilities in the part of extensibility simply do not exist. Microsoft decided to not allow custom video sources application would be able to discover the same way as web cameras. Due to Media Foundation complexity, and overhead and overall unfriendliness it is used by modest amount of applications. To implement a virtual webcam for Media Foundation application you again, like in case of Video for Windows, have to implement a kernel mode driver.

See also:

IP Video Source: Support for HTTPS protocol

This publishes a small update to IP Video Source tool to expose M-JPEG/JPEG video streams as DriectShow video devices. The utility now accepts https:// URL scheme and pulls video over secure connections. Not every camera has support for HTTPS, however many do including those from UDP Technology, Axis etc.

The update also includes other minor fixes including more reasonable memory allocation, and hotfix for D-Link DCS-930L model, which – to mention – is an excellent indication of quality of camera firmware nowadays (it has nothing to do with D-Link, most of vendors do things like this):

#pragma region D-Link DCS-930L Fix
// NOTE: This is just ridiculous, the camera sends boundary with space without quotes AND misuses -- prefix
if(sValue.Compare(L"multipart/x-mixed-replace;boundary=--video boundary--") == 0)
    sValue = L"multipart/x-mixed-replace;boundary=\"video boundary--\"";
#pragma endregion

Download links

MediaTools: Tone Source Filter to generate reference audio feed, dual Audio Source Filter and Virtual Audio Capture Device

In order to obtain a reference audio source and especially useful for debugging purposes, including:

  • audio input device unrelated to physical device, to avoid conditions when device is already in use by someone else
  • non-zero audio signal which is independent of certain speaker or broadcasting service, including one that makes capture, transmission or rendering issues easily perceptible by human
  • configurable to provide different audio media types, including through well known DirectShow interfaces, such as IAMStreamConfig
  • configurable to present in system as both regular DirectShow Filter, and as an Audio Capture Source which can be enumerated by applications
  • to be able to check how exactly other applications are accessing and configuring audio capture source

I added a new filter to the Media Tools library, a Tone Source Filter. The filter generates PCM Audio data, either infinite sine waveform, or interrupted signal of requested parameters:

Tone Source Filter General Property Page

The filter accepts connection on PCM media types with flexible sampling rates in range 8 KHz through 200 KHz, 8-bit audio and 1 channel. Media type is also configurable through or, if not configured this way, the first enumerated media type off the Output pin is also configurable through property page and/or persistent setting accessible via private IDispatch derived interface property.

Tone Source Filter Prefered Format Property Page

Additionally, the filter may configured as a system-wide available audio input device, such as for example available to VLC Media Player or Media Player Classic:

VLC Media Player's Option to use Tone Source Filter based device

In order to configure the filter as such device, the library exports function DoToneSourceFilterDevicePropertySheetModal, which can be called using rundll32 utility (“rundll32 Acquisition.dll,DoToneSourceFilterDevicePropertySheetModal” from command line):

Devices Property Page

A partial Visual C++ .NET 2008 source code is available from SVN, release binary included.

File and Class Summary


Acqusition.dll (download) hosts the following classes:

  • DirectShow Filters
    • Tone Source Filter, to generate reference/debug audio data

Class Overview

Tone Source Filter

The filter generates uninterrupted or interrupted reference sine waveform in form of PCM audio data.


The hosting library (DLL) exposes DoToneSourceFilterDevicePropertySheetModal function which provides GUI to configure the filter as one or more audio capture source device, which can be enumerated by System Device Enumerator.